Interesting Thoughts on Cloud Server Performance

Apache load testing on a Cloud Server – Jason – 7/31/2009

I recently created a cloud server for a wordpress blog, and configured it to the point that the blog was working OK.  Then I decided to check the performance aspects of the server, as it was a small 256 MB + 10GB machine.
Using apachebench (ab), I ran some load tests on the blog home page.  The server choked to death. It was swapping so bad, that RackSpace Cloud sent me this email:

This is an automatic notification to let you know that your Cloud Server,, is showing a considerable amount of consistent swapping activity. Quite often this is an indicator that your application or database are not as efficient as they could be. It also may indicate that you need to upgrade your Cloud Server for more RAM.

That’s strange…
I found that the response rate was:

4 requests per second, 10 concurrent connections

When the concurrency was raised to 50, the server died.  It took 10 minutes for it to calm down enough that I could LOG IN and KILL apache.
So upon further investingation, I found that the default httpd.conf configuration was WAY TOO LARGE:
We’re only working with 256 MB ram here, so if each apache process takes up any amount of memory at all, we have a low limit.

<IfModule prefork.c>
StartServers       8
MinSpareServers    5
MaxSpareServers   20
ServerLimit      256
MaxClients       256
MaxRequestsPerChild  4000

Only after drastically reducing the configuration to the following, did we get reasonable performance:

<IfModule prefork.c>
StartServers       4
MinSpareServers    2
MaxSpareServers   4
ServerLimit      4
MaxClients       4
MaxRequestsPerChild  4000

As it turns out, the performance went up considerably:

16 requests per second, 50 concurrent connections

Still, I thought that it could get better.  So I looked into installing some PHP opcode caching software.

The Alternative PHP Cache (APC) is a free and open opcode cache for PHP. Its goal is to provide a free, open, and robust framework for caching and optimizing PHP intermediate code.

As it turns out, it was easy to install.

# yum install php-pecl-apc

And after restarting apache:

47 requests per second, 50 concurrent connections

Even during this load test, the site was still responsive from a web browser.
Not bad for a cheap little Cloud Server, eh?